## Database & List Management Functions

**DAVERAGE**

Returns the average of selected database entries

DCOUNT

Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database

DCOUNTA

Counts nonblank cells in a database

DGET

Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria

DMAX

Returns the maximum value from selected database entries

DMIN

Returns the minimum value from selected database entries

DPRODUCT

Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database

DSTDEV Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries

DSTDEVP

Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries

DSUM

Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria

DVAR

Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries

DVARP

Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries

GETPIVOTDATA

Returns data stored in a PivotTable®

**Date & Time Functions**

**DATE**

Returns the serial number of a particular date

DATEVALUE

Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number

DAY

Converts a serial number to a day of the month

DAYS360

Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year

EDATE

Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date

EOMONTH

Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months

HOUR

Converts a serial number to an hour

MINUTE

Converts a serial number to a minute

MONTH

Converts a serial number to a month

NETWORKDAYS

Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates

NOW

Returns the serial number of the current date and time

SECOND

Converts a serial number to a second

TIME

Returns the serial number of a particular time

TIMEVALUE

Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number

TODAY

Returns the serial number of today's date

WEEKDAY

Converts a serial number to a day of the week

WORKDAY

Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays

YEAR

Converts a serial number to a year

YEARFRAC

Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date

Returns the serial number of a particular date

DATEVALUE

Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number

DAY

Converts a serial number to a day of the month

DAYS360

Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year

EDATE

Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date

EOMONTH

Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months

HOUR

Converts a serial number to an hour

MINUTE

Converts a serial number to a minute

MONTH

Converts a serial number to a month

NETWORKDAYS

Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates

NOW

Returns the serial number of the current date and time

SECOND

Converts a serial number to a second

TIME

Returns the serial number of a particular time

TIMEVALUE

Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number

TODAY

Returns the serial number of today's date

WEEKDAY

Converts a serial number to a day of the week

WORKDAY

Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays

YEAR

Converts a serial number to a year

YEARFRAC

Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date

**DDE & External Functions**

CALL

Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource

REGISTER.ID

Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered

SQLREQUEST

Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming

**Engineering Functions**

BESSELI

Returns the modified Bessel function In(x)

BESSELJ

Returns the Bessel function Jn(x)

BESSELK

Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x)

BESSELY

Returns the Bessel function Yn(x)

BIN2DEC

Converts a binary number to decimal

BIN2HEX

Converts a binary number to hexadecimal

BIN2OCT

Converts a binary number to octal

COMPLEX

Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number

CONVERT

Converts a number from one measurement system to another

DEC2BIN

Converts a decimal number to binary

DEC2HEX

Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal

DEC2OCT

Converts a decimal number to octal

DELTA

Tests whether two values are equal

ERF

Returns the error function

ERFC

Returns the complementary error function

GESTEP

Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value

HEX2BIN

Converts a hexadecimal number to binary

HEX2DEC

Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal

HEX2OCT

Converts a hexadecimal number to octal

IMABS

Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number

IMAGINARY

Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number

IMARGUMENT

Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians

IMCONJUGATE

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number

IMCOS

Returns the cosine of a complex number

IMDIV

Returns the quotient of two complex numbers

IMEXP

Returns the exponential of a complex number

IMLN

Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number

IMLOG10

Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number

IMLOG2

Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number

IMPOWER

Returns a complex number raised to an integer power

IMPRODUCT

Returns the product of two complex numbers

IMREAL

Returns the real coefficient of a complex number

IMSIN

Returns the sine of a complex number

IMSQRT

Returns the square root of a complex number

IMSUB

Returns the difference of two complex numbers

IMSUM

Returns the sum of complex numbers

OCT2BIN

Converts an octal number to binary

OCT2DEC

Converts an octal number to decimal

OCT2HEX

Converts an octal number to hexadecimal

SQRTPI

Returns the square root of (number * PI)

**Financial Functions**

ACCRINT

Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest

ACCRINTM

Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity

AMORDEGRC

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period

AMORLINC

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period

COUPDAYBS

Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date

COUPDAYS

Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date

COUPDAYSNC

Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date

COUPNCD

Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date

COUPNUM

Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date

COUPPCD

Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date

CUMIPMT

Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods

CUMPRINC

Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods

DB

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method

DDB

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a spcified period using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify

DISC

Returns the discount rate for a security

DOLLARDE

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number

DOLLARFR

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction

DURATION

Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments

EFFECT

Returns the effective annual interest rate

FV

Returns the future value of an investment

FVSCHEDULE

Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates

INTRATE

Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security

IPMT

Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period

IRR

Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows

MDURATION

Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100

MIRR

Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates

NOMINAL

Returns the annual nominal interest rate

NPER

Returns the number of periods for an investment

NPV

Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate

ODDFPRICE

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period

ODDFYIELD

Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period

ODDLPRICE

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period

ODDLYIELD

Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period

PMT

Returns the periodic payment for an annuity

PPMT

Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period

PRICE

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest

PRICEDISC

Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security

PRICEMAT

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity

PV

Returns the present value of an investment

RATE

Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity

RECEIVED

Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security

SLN

Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period

SYD

Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period

TBILLEQ

Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill

TBILLPRICE

Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill

TBILLYIELD

Returns the yield for a Treasury bill

VDB

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period using a declining balance method

XIRR

Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic

XNPV

Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic

YIELD

Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest

YIELDDISC

Returns the annual yield for a discounted security. For example, a treasury bill

YIELDMAT

Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity

**Information Functions**

CELL

Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell

COUNTBLANK

Counts the number of blank cells within a range

ERROR.TYPE

Returns a number corresponding to an error type

INFO

Returns information about the current operating environment

ISBLANK

Returns TRUE if the value is blank

ISERR

Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A

ISERROR

Returns TRUE if the value is any error value

ISEVEN

Returns TRUE if the number is even

ISLOGICAL

Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value

ISNA

Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value

ISNONTEXT

Returns TRUE if the value is not text

ISNUMBER

Returns TRUE if the value is a number

ISODD

Returns TRUE if the number is odd

ISREF

Returns TRUE if the value is a reference

ISTEXT

Returns TRUE if the value is text

N

Returns a value converted to a number

NA

Returns the error value #N/A

TYPE

Returns a number indicating the data type of a value

**Logical Functions**

AND

Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE

FALSE

Returns the logical value FALSE

IF

Specifies a logical test to perform

NOT

Reverses the logic of its argument

OR

Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE

TRUE

Returns the logical value TRUE

**Lookup & Reference Functions**

ADDRESS

Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet

AREAS

Returns the number of areas in a reference

CHOOSE

Chooses a value from a list of values

COLUMN

Returns the column number of a reference

COLUMNS

Returns the number of columns in a reference

HLOOKUP

Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell

HYPERLINK

Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet

INDEX

Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array

INDIRECT

Returns a reference indicated by a text value

LOOKUP

Looks up values in a vector or array

MATCH

Looks up values in a reference or array

OFFSET

Returns a reference offset from a given reference

ROW

Returns the row number of a reference

ROWS

Returns the number of rows in a reference

TRANSPOSE

Returns the transpose of an array

VLOOKUP

Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell

**Math & Trigonometry Functions**

ABS

Returns the absolute value of a number

ACOS

Returns the arccosine of a number

ACOSH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number

ASIN

Returns the arcsine of a number

ASINH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number

ATAN

Returns the arctangent of a number

ATAN2

Returns the arctangent from x- and y- coordinates

ATANH

Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number

CEILING

Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

COMBIN

Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects

COS

Returns the cosine of a number

COSH

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number

COUNTIF

Counts the number of non-blank cells within a range which meet the given criteria

DEGREES

Converts radians to degrees

EVEN

Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer

EXP

Returns e raised to the power of a given number

FACT

Returns the factorial of a number

FACTDOUBLE

Returns the double factorial of a number

FLOOR

Rounds a number down, toward zero

GCD

Returns the greatest common divisor

INT

Rounds a number down to the nearest integer

LCM

Returns the least common multiple

LN

Returns the natural logarithm of a number

LOG

Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base

LOG10

Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number

MDETERM

Returns the matrix determinant of an array

MINVERSE

Returns the matrix inverse of an array

MMULT

Returns the matrix product of two arrays

MOD

Returns the remainder from division

MROUND

Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple

MULTINOMIAL

Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers

ODD

Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer

PI

Returns the value of Pi

POWER

Returns the result of a number raised to a power

PRODUCT

Multiplies its arguments

QUOTIENT

Returns the integer portion of a division

RADIANS

Converts degrees to radians

RAND

Returns a random number between 0 and 1

RANDBETWEEN

Returns a random number between the numbers you specify

ROMAN

Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text

ROUND

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits

ROUNDDOWN

Rounds a number down, toward zero

ROUNDUP

Rounds a number up, away from zero

SERIESSUM

Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula

SIGN

Returns the sign of a number

SIN

Returns the sine of the given angle

SINH

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number

SQRT

Returns a positive square root

SQRTPI

Returns the square root of (number * PI)

SUBTOTAL

Returns a subtotal in a list or database

SUM

Adds its arguments

SUMIF

Adds the cells specified by a given criteria

SUMPRODUCT

Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components

SUMSQ

Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments

SUMX2MY2

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays

SUMX2PY2

Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays

SUMXMY2

Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays

TAN

Returns the tangent of a number

TANH

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number

TRUNC

Truncates a number to an integer

**Statistical Functions**

AVEDEV

Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean

AVERAGE

Returns the average of its arguments

AVERAGEA

Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values

BETADIST

Returns the cumulative beta probability density function

BETAINV

Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function

BINOMDIST

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability

CHIDIST

Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution

CHIINV

Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution

CHITEST

Returns the test for independence

CONFIDENCE

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean

CORREL

Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets

COUNT

Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments

COUNTA

Counts how many values are in the list of arguments

COVAR

Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations

CRITBINOM

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value

DEVSQ

Returns the sum of squares of deviations

EXPONDIST

Returns the exponential distribution

FDIST

Returns the F probability distribution

FINV

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution

FISHER

Returns the Fisher transformation

FISHERINV

Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation

FORECAST

Returns a value along a linear trend

FREQUENCY

Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array

FTEST

Returns the result of an F-test

GAMMADIST

Returns the gamma distribution

GAMMAINV

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution

GAMMALN

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, G(x)

GEOMEAN

Returns the geometric mean

GROWTH

Returns values along an exponential trend

HARMEAN

Returns the harmonic mean

HYPGEOMDIST

Returns the hypergeometric distribution

INTERCEPT

Returns the intercept of the linear regression line

KURT

Returns the kurtosis of a data set

LARGE

Returns the k-th largest value in a data set

LINEST

Returns the parameters of a linear trend

LOGEST

Returns the parameters of an exponential trend

LOGINV

Returns the inverse of the lognormal distribution

LOGNORMDIST

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution

MAX

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments

MAXA

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values

MEDIAN

Returns the median of the given numbers

MIN

Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments

MINA

Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values

MODE

Returns the most common value in a data set

NEGBINOMDIST

Returns the negative binomial distribution

NORMDIST

Returns the normal cumulative distribution

NORMINV

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution

NORMSDIST

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution

NORMSINV

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution

PEARSON

Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient

PERCENTILE

Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range

PERCENTRANK

Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set

PERMUT

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects

POISSON

Returns the Poisson distribution

PROB

Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits

QUARTILE

Returns the quartile of a data set

RANK

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers

RSQ

Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlatin coefficient

SKEW

Returns the skewness of a distribution

SLOPE

Returns the slope of the linear regression line

SMALL

Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set

STANDARDIZE

Returns a normalized value

STDEV

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample

STDEVA

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values

STDEVP

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population

STDEVPA

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values

STEYX

Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression

TDIST

Returns the Student's t-distribution

TINV

Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution

TREND

Returns values along a linear trend

TRIMMEAN

Returns the mean of the interior of a data set

TTEST

Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-Test

VAR

Estimates variance based on a sample

VARA

Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values

VARP

Calculates variance based on the entire population

VARPA

Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values

WEIBULL

Returns the Weibull distribution

ZTEST

Returns the two-tailed P-value of a z-test

**Text Functions**

CHAR

Returns the character specified by the code number

CLEAN

Removes all nonprintable characters from text

CODE

Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string

CONCATENATE

Joins several text items into one text item

DOLLAR

Converts a number to text, using currency format

EXACT

Checks to see if two text values are identical

FIND

Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive)

FIXED

Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals

LEFT

Returns the leftmost characters from a text value

LEN

Returns the number of characters in a text string

LOWER

Converts text to lowercase

MID

Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify

PROPER

Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value

REPLACE

Replaces characters within text

REPT

Repeats text a given number of times

RIGHT

Returns the rightmost characters from a text value

SEARCH

Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive)

SUBSTITUTE

Substitutes new text for old text in a text string

T

Converts its arguments to text

TEXT

Formats a number and converts it to text

TRIM

Removes spaces from text

UPPER

Converts text to uppercase

VALUE

Converts a text argument to a number